India’s Relation with her Neighbours: Pakistan and China

Relation between India and Pakistan, the Kashmir conflict, military standoffs, efforts to heal the conflict.

Relation between India-Pakistan has seen number of up and down’s right since the Independence of both the nations in 1947. The relation has been complex due to number of historical and political events such as Independence of both the nations, claim for Kashmir, Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, military standoffs, infiltration’s and several other issue have made the relation complex. The enmity began right at the time of Independence when, being majority Muslim populated province Kashmir was acceded to India, Pakistan asserts that ‘accede’ to be “illegitimate” and claims Kashmir to be their province. Pakistan stresses to conduct a referendum (as promised by then Prime Minister J.L.Nehru) in the Kashmir region, and let the people decide who do they want to be governed from. While India holds that referendum cannot be conducted, as the promise was to conduct a referendum after Pak-sponsored terrorism is completely eradicated from J&K region, which is yet to be fulfilled.

This animosity between both the nations has witnessed four major wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999 (Kargil) which has diluted every initiative of peace taken by both the countries. However, initiatives like have been taken to relax the tensions between both the countries primarily, the Shimla summit, the Agra summit and the Lahore summit but the Siachen conflict, the intensification of Kashmir insurgency in 1989, Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests in 1998 and the 1999 Kargil war, has went on to again escalate tension between both these nations.Nonetheless, Aman ki Asha campaign, Delhi–Lahore Bus service was successful in de-escalating tensions but periodic terror attempts have successfully derailed these negotiations. The 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings, which killed 68 civilians, was also a crucial point in relations. Additionally, the 2008 26/11 Mumbai attacks carried out by Pakistani militants resulted in a severe blow to the ongoing India-Pakistan peace talks.

Pakistan continues to infiltrate arsonists to parts of Kashmir and Punjab to attack the territorial sovereignty of India but has failed to prove anything. Pak’s relentless infiltration to the parts of Kashmir and Punjab has sparked more tensions between both the countries. The recent terror attack in the Uri sector of J&K, killing more than 19 Indian soldiers was countered by a Surgical strike by Indian armed forces as a befitting reply to terror supporting groups.Pakistan also continues to claim Pakistan on all International forums without any substantial argument. Pakistan  keep urging the international organisations like UN, which is a party to the UN charter to intervene in the issue and ask India to surrender Kashmir to them.

Balochistan, PoK and Gilgit-Baltistan

Recently, the Indian Prime Minister has hit Pakistan where it hurt the most, by raking the Balochistan issue. Balochistan is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. It is the largest province in the country, covering 44 percent of the total area. The province was divided into four princely states, which were forcefully acceded to Pakistan. Pakistani security forces are accused of illegally detaining 19,000 men, women and children in Balochistan. Many of them have been raped and killed. Pakistan has been accused of relentlessly carrying out atrocities across the Baloch and PoK (Pakistan occupied Kashmir) region and suppressing voices of dissent against the government and it’s aides. Allegedly, there have been voices against the government for carrying  out monstrosity across the region.

China, and it’s relation with India and Pakistan

China, has been a close aid of Pakistan from a long time, right from indirectly supporting its terror activities to funding for terrorists. China’s sudden invasion of northeast India, they suddenly realised the ancient protection of the Himalayan Mountains had vanished.China continues to occupy areas inside of India’s borders as a result of the Indo-China war of 1962. China has nuclear-armed missiles positioned against India along the Himalayan border and in Tibet, in addition to being Pakistan’s main military weapons provider. China and Pakistan have successfully blocked India’s NSG (Nuclear Suppliers Group) membership bid despite support from the majority of NSG members.


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